Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis By Mannering

Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis By Fred L. Mannering and Scott S. Washburn

Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis By Fred L. Mannering and Scott S. Washburn

Contents of Principles of Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis

Chapter 1 Introduction to Highway Engineering and Traffic Analysis 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Highways and the Economy 1
1.2.1 The Highway Economy 2
1.2.2 Supply Chains 2
1.2.3 Economic Development 2
1.3 Highways, Energy, and the Environment 3
1.4 Highways as Part of the Transportation System 3
1.5 Highway Transportation and the Human Element 3
1.5.1 Passenger Transportation Modes and Traffic Congestion 4
1.5.2 Highway Safety 4
1.5.3 Demographic Trends 5
1.6 Highways and Evolving Technologies 6
1.6.1 Infrastructure Technologies 6
1.6.2 Vehicle Technologies 7
1.6.3 Traffic Control Technologies 7
1.7 Scope of Study 8
Chapter 2 Road Vehicle Performance 9
2.1 Introduction 9
2.2 Tractive Effort and Resistance 9
2.3 Aerodynamic Resistance 10
2.4 Rolling Resistance 13
2.5 Grade Resistance 15
2.6 Available Tractive Effort 16
2.6.1 Maximum Tractive Effort 16
2.6.2 Engine-Generated Tractive Effort 18
2.7 Vehicle Acceleration 22
2.8 Fuel Efficiency 27
2.9 Principles of Braking 27
2.9.1 Braking Forces 28
2.9.2 Braking Force Ratio and Efficiency 30
2.9.3 Antilock Braking Systems 32
2.9.4 Theoretical Stopping Distance 32
2.9.5 Practical Stopping Distance 37
2.9.6 Distance Traveled During Driver Perception/Reaction 40
Chapter 3 Geometric Design of Highways 47
3.1 Introduction 47
3.2 Principles of Highway Alignment 48
3.3 Vertical Alignment 49
3.3.1 Vertical Curve Fundamentals 50
3.3.2 Stopping Sight Distance 58
3.3.3 Stopping Sight Distance and Crest Vertical Curve Design 59
3.3.4 Stopping Sight Distance and Sag Vertical Curve Design 63
3.3.5 Passing Sight Distance and Crest Vertical Curve Design 71
3.3.6 Underpass Sight Distance and Sag Vertical Curve Design 74
3.4 Horizontal Alignment 77
3.4.1 Vehicle Cornering 77
3.4.2 Horizontal Curve Fundamentals 79
3.4.3 Stopping Sight Distance and Horizontal Curve Design 83
3.5 Combined Vertical and Horizontal Alignment 85
Chapter 4 Pavement Design 97
4.1 Introduction 97
4.2 Pavement Types 97
4.2.1 Flexible Pavements 98
4.2.2 Rigid Pavements 99
4.3 Pavement System Design: Principles for Flexible Pavements 99
4.4 Traditional AASHTO Flexible-Pavement Design Procedure 100
4.4.1 Serviceability Concept 100
4.4.2 Flexible-Pavement Design Equation 101
4.4.3 Structural Number 108
4.5 Pavement System Design: Principles for Rigid Pavements 112
4.6 Traditional AASHTO Rigid-Pavement Design Procedure 112
4.7 Measuring Pavement Quality and Performance 126
4.7.1 International Roughness Index 126
4.7.2 Friction Measurements 127
4.7.3 Rut Depth 128
4.7.4 Cracking 128
4.7.5 Faulting 129
4.7.6 Punchouts 129
4.8 Mechanistic-Empirical Pavement Design 129
Chapter 5 Fundamentals of Traffic Flow and Queuing Theory 135
5.1 Introduction 135
5.2 Traffic Stream Parameters 135
5.2.1 Traffic Flow, Speed, and Density 136
5.3 Basic Traffic Stream Models 141
5.3.1 Speed-Density Model 141
5.3.2 Flow-Density Model 143
5.3.3 Speed-Flow Model 144
5.4 Models of Traffic Flow 146
5.4.1 Poisson Model 146
5.4.2 Limitations of the Poisson Model 150
5.5 Queuing Theory and Traffic Flow Analysis 151
5.5.1 Dimensions of Queuing Models 151
5.5.2 D/D/1 Queuing 152
5.5.3 M/D/1 Queuing 159
5.5.4 M/M/1 Queuing 161
5.5.5 M/M/N Queuing 162
5.6 Traffic Analysis at Highway Bottlenecks 165
Chapter 6 Highway Capacity and Level-of-Service Analysis 175
6.1 Introduction 175
6.2 Level-of-Service Concept 176
6.3 Level-of-Service Determination 179
6.3.1 Base Conditions and Capacity 179
6.3.2 Determining Free-Flow Speed 179
6.3.3 Determining Analysis Flow Rate 180
6.3.4 Calculating Service Measure(s) and Determining LOS 180
6.4 Basic Freeway Segments 180
6.4.1 Base Conditions and Capacity 181
6.4.2 Service Measure 181
6.4.3 Determining Free-Flow Speed 184
6.4.4 Determining Analysis Flow Rate 185
6.4.5 Calculating Density and Determining LOS 190
6.5 Multilane Highways 193
6.5.1 Base Conditions and Capacity 196
6.5.2 Service Measure 196
6.5.3 Determining Free-Flow Speed 196
6.5.4 Determining Analysis Flow Rate 199
6.5.5 Calculating Density and Determine LOS 199
6.6 Two-Lane Highways 202
6.6.1 Base Conditions and Capacity 202
6.6.2 Service Measures 203
6.6.3 Determine Free-Flow Speed 204
6.6.4 Determine Analysis Flow Rate 205
6.6.5 Calculating Service Measures 207
6.6.6 Determining LOS 211
6.7 Design Traffic Volumes 214
Chapter 7 Traffic Control and Analysis at Signalized Intersections 225
7.1 Introduction 225
7.2 Intersection and Signal Control Characteristics 226
7.2.1 Actuated Control 229
7.2.2 Signal Controller Operation 232
7.3 Traffic Flow Fundamentals for Signalized Intersections 234
7.4 Development of a Traffic Signal Phasing and Timing Plan 237
7.4.1 Select Signal Phasing 238
7.4.2 Establish Analysis Lane Groups 241
7.4.3 Calculate Analysis Flow Rates and Adjusted Saturation Flow Rates 243
7.4.4 Determine Critical Lane Groups and Total Cycle Lost Time 244
7.4.5 Calculate Cycle Length 246
7.4.6 Allocate Green Time 248
7.4.7 Calculate Change and Clearance Intervals 250
7.4.8 Check Pedestrian Crossing Time 252
7.5 Analysis of Traffic at Signalized Intersections 253
7.5.1 Signalized Intersection Analysis with D/D/1 Queuing 254
7.5.2 Signal Coordination 261
7.5.3 Control Delay Calculation for Level of Service Analysis 269
7.5.4 Level-of-Service Determination 274
Chapter 8 Travel Demand and Traffic Forecasting 285
8.1 Introduction 285
8.2 Traveler Decisions 286
8.3 Scope of the Travel Demand and Traffic Forecasting Problem 287
8.4 Trip Generation 289
8.4.1 Typical Trip Generation Models 291
8.4.2 Trip Generation with Count Data Models 294
8.5 Mode and Destination Choice 296
8.5.1 Methodological Approach 296
8.5.2 Logit Model Applications 297
8.6 Highway Route Choice 303
8.6.1 Highway Performance Functions 303
8.6.2 User Equilibrium 304
8.6.3 Mathematical Programming Approach to User Equilibrium 310
8.6.4 System Optimization 311
8.7 Traffic Forecasting in Practice 315
8.8 The Traditional Four-Step Process 318
8.9 The Current State of Travel Demand and Traffic Forecasting 319
Appendix 8A Least Squares Estimation 320
Appendix 8B Maximum-Likelihood Estimation 322
Index 331

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