DESIGN OF SEWER SYSTEM
Design of Sewer System. Sewer system plays a vital role in the economic development of a country. Sewers are must for the drainage of waste water. In order to have an effective sewage system the sewers should be properly designed and more care should be taken in finding the invert levels otherwise whole design may get wrong. Design of Sewer System. Sewers are designed for the drainage of waste water coming from houses, industries, streets, runoff etc to protect the environment and people from serious diseases, as more than 50 diseases spread from sewage. So for a good living, the sewers should be properly designed and the sewage should be treated properly before discharging it into the river. Design of Sewer System
Some of the important and relevant terms for sewer system are discussed below….
It is Liquid Waste or Waste Water produce as a result of water use.Design of Sewer System
It is the pipe or conduit for carrying sewage. It is generally closed and flow takes place undr gravity (Atmospheric Pressure). Design of Sewer System
Sewerage is the system of collection of waste water and conveying it to a point of final disposal with or without treatment. Design of Sewer System
Sources of waste water
- Storm water
It is the waste water from houses, offices, other buildings, hotels and institutions. Design of Sewer System
It is the liquid waste from the industrial places from their different industrial processes like dying, paper matting, tanneries, chemical industries, etc. Design of Sewer System
It includes surface runoff generated from rainfall and the street wash. Design of Sewer System
Types of Sewer Systems
Following are the types of sewerage. Design of Sewer System
It is the system in which storm water is carried separately from domestic and industrial waste water. This system is preferred when
- There is an immediate need for collection of sanitary sewage but not for storm water
- When sanitary sewage needs treatment but the storm water does not. Design of Sewer System
It is the type of system in which sewer carries both the sanitary and storm water. Combined system is favored when
- Combined sewage can be disposed off without treatment
- Both sanitary and storm water need treatment
- Streets are narrow and two separate sewers can not be laid. Design of Sewer System
Types of Sewers Design of Sewer System
It carries sanitary sewage i.e. waste water from municipality including Domestic and Industrial wastewaters. Design of Sewer System
It carries storm sewage including Surface Runoff and Street Wash. Design of Sewer System
It carries domestic, industrial and storm sewage. Design of Sewer System
It is the sewer conveying sewage from plumbing system of building to common/municipal sewers.
This sewer carries discharge from two or more house sewers. Design of Sewer System
This sewer carries discharge from two or more laterals. Design of Sewer System
Main/ Trunk Sewer
It receives discharge from two or more sub-mains.
It receives discharge from all collecting system and conveys it to the point of final disposal.
It is flow derived from the sanitary and industrial sewage that is the raw water from these industries and houses, so it means it has direct relation with the amount of water consumed.
Generally 80 to 90 % of the water consumption is taken as sewage or waste water flow. Design of Sewer System
Variation in sewage flow
Like water supply, sewage flow varies from time to time. Since sewers must be able to accommodate Maximum Rate of Flow, the variation in the sewage flow must be studied.
Generally Herman Formula is used to estimate the ratio of Maximum to Average Flow
P is population in thousands. Design of Sewer System
WASA Lahore Design Considers the following relationship for sewer design
|Average Sewage Flow (m3 /day)
|2500 – 5000
|5000 – 10000
|10000 – 25000
|25000 – 50000
|50000 – 100000
|100000 – 250000
|250000 – 500000
It is amount of water that enters into the sewers through poor joints, cracked pipes, walls and covers of manholes. Design of Sewer System
- It is nonexistent during dry weather but increases during rainy season.
- Water and Sanitation Agency (WASA) Lahore uses the following infiltration rates for the design of sewer system.
|225 mm to 600 mm
|5 % of Avg. Sewage Flow
|> 600 mm
|10 % of Avg. Sewage Flow
Period of design is indefinite. The system is designed to take care for the maximum development of the area. But we take design period of 20 years for our sewer system. Design of Sewer System
Sewer Pumping Station
- Design period is 10-years.
- Rate of Flow are average daily, peak and minimum flow including Infiltration.
The project is based on the design of Partially combined sewerage system of a community which is having approximately a flat terrain because the difference in the reduce levels is very small. I have designed the sewage pumping station along with the hydraulic statement and the required drawings plus some extra drawings. I am confident that my design will work successfully and there will be not any problems. The Layout of the community is given as under. Design of Sewer System
First of all calculate the average sewage flow on the basis of water consumption and the population at the end of the design period. i.e at the full development of the area. Then the design flow for sanitary sewer and partially combined sewers can by calculated by using the following formulae. Design of Sewer System
- For Sanitary Sewer
Qdesign= Peak sewage flow + infiltration
- For partially combined sewer (WASA Criteria)
Qdesign = 2xPeak sewage flow + infiltration
Manning’s Equation is used for sewers flowing under gravity Design of Sewer System
V = Velocity of flow in m/sec
R = Hydraulic mean depth (A/P) = D/4 when pipe is flowing full or half full
S = Slope of the sewer
n = Coefficient of roughness for pipes
Minimum (Self Cleansing) Velocity
Sewage should flow at all times with sufficient velocity to prevent the settlement of solid matter in the sewer. Self Cleansing Velocity is the minimum velocity that ensures non settlement of suspended matter in the sewer. Design of Sewer System
The following minimum velocities are generally employed
- Sanitary sewer = 0.6 m/sec
- Storm sewer = 1.0 m/sec
- Partially combined sewer = 0.7 m/sec
The maximum velocities in the sewer pipes should not exceed more than 2.4 m/sec. This max velocity in the sewer should not exceed this limit of 2.4 m/sec. It is to avoid the excessive sewer abrasion and also to avoid steep slopes. Design of Sewer System
Minimum Sewer Size
225mm is taken as the minimum sewer size. The reason being that, the choking does not take place even with the bigger size particles, which are usually thrown into the sewer through manholes. Design of Sewer System
Minimum Cover of Sewer
1m is taken as the minimum cover over the sewers to avoid damage from live loads coming on the sewer. Design of Sewer System
Spacing of Manhole (WASA, Criteria)
For (Sewer Size) 225mm to 380mm spacing not more than 100m
For (Sewer Size) 460mm to 760mm spacing not more than 120m
For (Sewer Size) greater than 760mm spacing not more than 150m
Direction of Sewer Line
Sewer should flow, as for as possible the Natural Slope. Design of Sewer System
Design of Sewer
- Size of Sewer
Use the following relation to find the diameter of sewer
Qf = A x V
- Slope of Sewer
Select the minimum velocity value and use the Manning’s formula
The lowest inside level at any cross-section of a sewer pipe is known as Invert Level at that Cross-section. Design of Sewer System
Invert Level = NGSL/Road Level – Depth of Sewer – Thickness of Sewer – Dia. of Sewer
Joints in Sewers
- Bell & Spigot Joint
- Tongue &Groove Joint
These are provided for
- inspection and
- house connection
- Change in Sewer direction
- Change in sewer diameter
- Change in slope
One man hole to be provided for 2-4 plots Design of Sewer System
Design of Sewer System
SEWERAGE DESIGN DATA
No of Plots = 281
No of Apartments = 3
No of Flats = 3
Design period = 20 years
Present Population Pp= 1) 281×7+400×3+200×3 = 3767
Design Population Pd= 2) 281×10+600×3+400×3 = 5810
Annual Growth Rate = 2.1% (For Pakistan, 2008 report)
Design Population Pd
Design of Sewer System
1) Pd = Pp x (1+2.1/100)20
Pd = 3767x(1+2.1/100)20 = 5709
Pd = 5810 ( From Table)
Per capita water consumption = 350 + 44= 394 lpcd (liters per capita per day)
Average Design flow = Pd x water consumption x 0.8 / 1000
(80% goes to sewers as waste water)
= (394 x 5810 x 0.8 ) / 1000
Qavg = 1831.312 m3/day
Peak factor = 4 (from WASA table)
To Check Infiltration rates
DESIGN OF WET WELL
Qmax = 14742.1m3/day = 10.237 m3/min
P = Qmax = 10.237 m3/min
Minimum cycle time Design of Sewer System
Minimum Cycle time must not be less than 5-minutes
For smaller pumps t min = 15 min
Volume = V = [P x t(min)]/4
Effective Volume = ( 10.237 x 15 ) / 4 = 38.39 m3 Design of Sewer System
DIMENSIONS OF WET WELL
Length = 3.6 m Design of Sewer System
Width = 3.6m
Height = 3 m
Volume = 3.6*3.6*3 = 38.88m3
Pump must run for at least 2 minutes
Check the cycle time , should be greater than 2 minutes
t = V/(P-Qmin) = 38.39 / (10.237 – 0.6358) = 3.99~=4
So 4 minutes is greater than 2 minutes ..( OK) Design of Sewer System
Cycle Time for Minimum and Average Flow
CYCLE TIME = t = (V/(P-Q))+(V/Q)
For Qmin = 38.39 / (10.237 – 0.6358) + 38.398/0.6358 = 64.391 min > 15min (OK)
For Qavg = 38.39 / (10.237 -1.271) + 38.39/1.271 = 34.48 min > 15min (OK)
- This design is based on partially combined sewerage system thus is economic.
- All the necessary things are taken from the WASA tables and Minimum velocity is taken as 0.6 m/sec which is the self cleansing velocity and velocity must not be more than 2.4 m/sec.
- Minimum diameter of sewer is taken as 225 mm and other diameters are rounded to the locally available in the market according to WASA standards.
- Minimum rate of sewage flow is taken as 50% of average sewage flow.
- Minimum clear cover of 1-m is provided above the sewer in order to avoid from impact of live loading.
- Flush tanks are provided where velocity is less than 0.6 m/Sec. Design of Sewer System
- Diameters are less then 600mm so Infiltration rate used is 5% of average sewage flow.
- Bell & Spigot joints have been used as the diameters are less then 600mm.
- One Drop Manhole is coming at M15 as the vertical drop is more than 0.6m.
- In Sewers (M9-M8, M8-M11, M10-M11, M12-M13, M5-M18, M20-M21, M24-M21, M21-M22, M25-M26), Velocity is less than the self cleansing velocity So, Flush tanks will be provided here.
- Most of the diameters are of 225mm ensuring the economic side of the project.
- Wet well dimensions are 2.5×3.5×4.4.
- Cycle time of 15 minutes is satisfied ensuring the adaptability of small pumps so more economic.
- Flush tanks should be flushed once in 24 hours to avoid sediment deposition.
- If the sewer is to be laid under the water table then crushed stone bedding should be used.
- Sewers should be joined in a manhole keeping the crowns at the same level.
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