Spectral Reflectance of Different Objects

 A study of Spectral Reflectance of Different Objects 1.  Introduction Spectral Reflectance 1.1. Electromagnetic Interaction When a photon does encounter an atomic particle, it transfers energy to the particle. The energy may be remitted back the way it came (reflected), scattered Continue reading Spectral Reflectance of Different Objects

Remote Sensing Platforms and Types

Remote Sensing Platforms and Types In this article one can see remote sensing platforms and types with a comparison between different types of sensors. The tabular comparison is made between satellite sensor, altitude, life, sensor bands, sensor resolution, revisit frequency, Continue reading Remote Sensing Platforms and Types

Road Estimation Approaches

Road Estimation Approaches For the calculation of earthwork in roads longitudinal section and cross-section of the ground are taken and the formation line is fixed. The formation line is fixed in consideration of floods, gradient, height of bank, depth of Continue reading Road Estimation Approaches

Construction Activities with units

Construction Activities with units (Engr. Ubaid Ahmad Mughal) Construction Activities with units, Earth work:- Earth work in excavation and earth work in back filling are usually taken out separately under different items, and quantities are calculated in cum. Foundation trenches (Trenches Continue reading Construction Activities with units

Estimation, Types of Estimates

Estimation, Types of Estimates Estimation, Types of Estimates             For all engineering works it is required to know beforehand the probable cost of construction known as estimated cost. If the estimated cost is greater than the money available then attempts Continue reading Estimation, Types of Estimates