# Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences By Gary W. Heiman

Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences By Gary W. Heiman

Contents of Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences By Gary W. Heiman

Introduction to Statistics 1
GETTING STARTED 1
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO LEARN STATISTICS
(AND HOW DO YOU DO THAT?) 1
REVIEW OF MATHEMATICS USED IN STATISTICS 4
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 9
CHAPTER SUMMARY 9
KEY TERMS 10
REVIEW QUESTIONS 10
APPLICATION QUESTIONS 10
2 Statistics and the Research Process 12
GETTING STARTED 12
THE LOGIC OF RESEARCH 12
A QUICK REVIEW 18
APPLYING DESCRIPTIVE AND INFERENTIAL STATISTICS 20
UNDERSTANDING EXPERIMENTS AND CORRELATIONAL STUDIES 22
A QUICK REVIEW 26
THE CHARACTERISTICS OF SCORES 27
A QUICK REVIEW 29
STATISTICS IN PUBLISHED RESEARCH: USING STATISTICAL TERMS 30
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 30
CHAPTER SUMMARY 31
KEY TERMS 32
REVIEW QUESTIONS 32
APPLICATION QUESTIONS 33
3 Frequency Distributions and Percentiles 36
GETTING STARTED 36
NEW STATISTICAL NOTATION 36
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS 37
SIMPLE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS 37
A QUICK REVIEW 38
A QUICK REVIEW 42
TYPES OF SIMPLE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS 42
A QUICK REVIEW 46
RELATIVE FREQUENCY AND THE NORMAL CURVE 47
A QUICK REVIEW 51
COMPUTING CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY AND PERCENTILE 51
A QUICK REVIEW 54
STATISTICS IN PUBLISHED RESEARCH: APA PUBLICATION RULES 54
A WORD ABOUT GROUPED FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTIONS 54
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 55
CHAPTER SUMMARY 55
KEY TERMS 56
REVIEW QUESTIONS 56
APPLICATION QUESTIONS 57
INTEGRATION QUESTIONS 58
SUMMARY OF FORMULAS 59
Measures of Central Tendency: The Mean, Median, and Mode 60
GETTING STARTED 60
NEW STATISTICAL NOTATION 60
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT CENTRAL TENDENCY? 61
WHAT IS CENTRAL TENDENCY? 61
THE MODE 62
THE MEDIAN 63
A QUICK REVIEW 65
THE MEAN 65
A QUICK REVIEW 67
TRANSFORMATIONS AND THE MEAN 69
DEVIATIONS AROUND THE MEAN 69
A QUICK REVIEW 72
DESCRIBING THE POPULATION MEAN 72
SUMMARIZING RESEARCH 73
A QUICK REVIEW 77
STATISTICS IN PUBLISHED RESEARCH: USING THE MEAN 79
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 79
CHAPTER SUMMARY 79
KEY TERMS 80
REVIEW QUESTIONS 80
APPLICATION QUESTIONS 81
INTEGRATION QUESTIONS 82
SUMMARY OF FORMULAS 83
5 Measures of Variability: Range, Variance, and Standard Deviation 84
GETTING STARTED 84
NEW STATISTICAL NOTATION 84
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT MEASURES OF VARIABILITY? 85
A QUICK REVIEW 86
THE RANGE 87
UNDERSTANDING THE VARIANCE AND STANDARD DEVIATION 87
A QUICK REVIEW 92
COMPUTING THE SAMPLE VARIANCE AND SAMPLE
STANDARD DEVIATION 93
A QUICK REVIEW 94
THE POPULATION VARIANCE AND THE POPULATION
STANDARD DEVIATION 95
A QUICK REVIEW 99
A SUMMARY OF THE VARIANCE AND STANDARD DEVIATION 100
APPLYING THE VARIANCE AND STANDARD DEVIATION TO RESEARCH 101
STATISTICS IN PUBLISHED RESEARCH: REPORTING VARIABILITY 103
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 104
CHAPTER SUMMARY 104
KEY TERMS 105
REVIEW QUESTIONS 105
APPLICATION QUESTIONS 106
INTEGRATION QUESTIONS 107
SUMMARY OF FORMULAS 108
6 z-Scores and the Normal Curve Model 109
GETTING STARTED 109
NEW STATISTICAL NOTATION 109
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT z-SCORES? 110
UNDERSTANDING z-SCORES 110
A QUICK REVIEW 114
INTERPRETING z-SCORES USING THE z-DISTRIBUTION 115
USING z-SCORES TO COMPARE DIFFERENT VARIABLES 116
USING z-SCORES TO DETERMINE THE RELATIVE FREQUENCY
OF RAW SCORES 117
A QUICK REVIEW 123
STATISTICS IN PUBLISHED RESEARCH: USING z-SCORES 123
USING z-SCORES TO DESCRIBE SAMPLE MEANS 124
A QUICK REVIEW 130
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 130
CHAPTER SUMMARY 130
KEY TERMS 131
REVIEW QUESTIONS 131
APPLICATION QUESTIONS 132
INTEGRATION QUESTIONS 133
SUMMARY OF FORMULAS 134
7 The Correlation Coefficient 135
GETTING STARTED 135
NEW STATISTICAL NOTATION 135
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT CORRELATION
COEFFICIENTS? 136
UNDERSTANDING CORRELATIONAL RESEARCH 136
TYPES OF RELATIONSHIPS 139
STRENGTH OF THE RELATIONSHIP 142
A QUICK REVIEW 147
THE PEARSON CORRELATION COEFFICIENT 147
A QUICK REVIEW 150
THE SPEARMAN RANK-ORDER CORRELATION COEFFICIENT 151
A QUICK REVIEW 153
THE RESTRICTION OF RANGE PROBLEM 153
STATISTICS IN PUBLISHED RESEARCH: CORRELATION
COEFFICIENTS 154
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 155
CHAPTER SUMMARY 155
KEY TERMS 156
REVIEW QUESTIONS 156
APPLICATION QUESTIONS 157
INTEGRATION QUESTIONS 159
SUMMARY OF FORMULAS 159
8 Linear Regression 160
GETTING STARTED 160
NEW STATISTICAL NOTATION 160
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT LINEAR REGRESSION? 161
UNDERSTANDING LINEAR REGRESSION 161
THE LINEAR REGRESSION EQUATION 163
A QUICK REVIEW 168
DESCRIBING THE ERRORS IN PREDICTION 168
A QUICK REVIEW 171
COMPUTING THE PROPORTION OF VARIANCE ACCOUNTED FOR 174
A QUICK REVIEW 178
A WORD ABOUT MULTIPLE CORRELATION AND REGRESSION 179
STATISTICS IN PUBLISHED RESEARCH: LINEAR REGRESSION 179
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 179
CHAPTER SUMMARY 180
KEY TERMS 181
REVIEW QUESTIONS 181
APPLICATION QUESTIONS 181
INTEGRATION QUESTIONS 183
SUMMARY OF FORMULAS 184
9 Using Probability to Make Decisions about Data 185
GETTING STARTED 185
NEW STATISTICAL NOTATION 185
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT PROBABILITY? 186
THE LOGIC OF PROBABILITY 186
COMPUTING PROBABILITY 188
A QUICK REVIEW 189
OBTAINING PROBABILITY FROM THE STANDARD NORMAL CURVE 189
A QUICK REVIEW 192
RANDOM SAMPLING AND SAMPLING ERROR 193
DECIDING WHETHER A SAMPLE REPRESENTS A POPULATION 194
A QUICK REVIEW 196
A QUICK REVIEW 202
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 202
CHAPTER SUMMARY 203
KEY TERMS 203
REVIEW QUESTIONS 204
APPLICATION QUESTIONS 204
INTEGRATION QUESTIONS 205
SUMMARY OF FORMULAS 206
10 Introduction to Hypothesis Testing 207
GETTING STARTED 207
NEW STATISTICAL NOTATION 207
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT THE z-TEST? 208
THE ROLE OF INFERENTIAL STATISTICS IN RESEARCH 208
SETTING UP INFERENTIAL PROCEDURES 209
A QUICK REVIEW 213
PERFORMING THE z-TEST 215
INTERPRETING SIGNIFICANT RESULTS 218
INTERPRETING NONSIGNIFICANT RESULTS 219
SUMMARY OF THE z-TEST 220
A QUICK REVIEW 221
THE ONE-TAILED TEST 221
A QUICK REVIEW 223
STATISTICS IN PUBLISHED RESEARCH: REPORTING
SIGNIFICANCE TESTS 224
ERRORS IN STATISTICAL DECISION MAKING 224
A QUICK REVIEW 229
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 229
CHAPTER SUMMARY 230
KEY TERMS 231
REVIEW QUESTIONS 231
APPLICATION QUESTIONS 231
INTEGRATION QUESTIONS 233
SUMMARY OF FORMULAS 233
11 Performing the One-Sample t-Test and Testing Correlation Coefficients 234
GETTING STARTED 234
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT t-TESTS? 234
PERFORMING THE ONE-SAMPLE t-TEST 235
A QUICK REVIEW 237
A QUICK REVIEW 242
ESTIMATING BY COMPUTING A CONFIDENCE INTERVAL 243
A QUICK REVIEW 246
STATISTICS IN PUBLISHED RESEARCH: REPORTING THE t-TEST 246
SIGNIFICANCE TESTS FOR CORRELATION COEFFICIENTS 247
A QUICK REVIEW 253
MAXIMIZING THE POWER OF STATISTICAL TESTS 253
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 255
CHAPTER SUMMARY 255
KEY TERMS 256
REVIEW QUESTIONS 256
APPLICATION QUESTIONS 257
INTEGRATION QUESTIONS 258
SUMMARY OF FORMULAS 259
12 The Two-Sample t-Test 260
GETTING STARTED 260
NEW STATISTICAL NOTATION 260
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT THE TWO-SAMPLE t-TEST? 261
UNDERSTANDING THE TWO-SAMPLE EXPERIMENT 261
THE INDEPENDENT-SAMPLES t-TEST 262
A QUICK REVIEW 267
SUMMARY OF THE INDEPENDENT-SAMPLES t-TEST 270
A QUICK REVIEW 270
THE RELATED-SAMPLES t-TEST 271
STATISTICAL HYPOTHESES FOR THE RELATED-SAMPLES t-TEST 273
SUMMARY OF THE RELATED-SAMPLES t-TEST 278
A QUICK REVIEW 278
DESCRIBING THE RELATIONSHIP IN A TWO-SAMPLE EXPERIMENT 279
STATISTICS IN PUBLISHED RESEARCH: THE TWO-SAMPLE EXPERIMENT 283
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 284
CHAPTER SUMMARY 284
KEY TERMS 285
REVIEW QUESTIONS 285
APPLICATION QUESTIONS 286
INTEGRATION QUESTIONS 288
SUMMARY OF FORMULAS 289
13 The One-Way Analysis of Variance 290
GETTING STARTED 290
NEW STATISTICAL NOTATION 290
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT ANOVA? 291
AN OVERVIEW OF ANOVA 291
A QUICK REVIEW 294
UNDERSTANDING THE ANOVA 294
A QUICK REVIEW 299
PERFORMING THE ANOVA 299
A QUICK REVIEW 306
PERFORMING POST HOC COMPARISONS 306
A QUICK REVIEW 309
SUMMARY OF STEPS IN PERFORMING A ONE-WAY ANOVA 309
ADDITIONAL PROCEDURES IN THE ONE-WAY ANOVA 310
STATISTICS IN PUBLISHED RESEARCH: REPORTING ANOVA 312
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 312
CHAPTER SUMMARY 313
KEY TERMS 314
REVIEW QUESTIONS 314
APPLICATION QUESTIONS 314
INTEGRATION QUESTIONS 316
SUMMARY OF FORMULAS 317
14 The Two-Way Analysis of Variance 318
GETTING STARTED 318
NEW STATISTICAL NOTATION 318
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT THE TWO-WAY ANOVA? 319
UNDERSTANDING THE TWO-WAY DESIGN 319
OVERVIEW OF THE TWO-WAY, BETWEEN-SUBJECTS ANOVA 320
A QUICK REVIEW 324
A QUICK REVIEW 326
COMPUTING THE TWO-WAY ANOVA 327
A QUICK REVIEW 336
INTERPRETING THE TWO-WAY EXPERIMENT 336
A QUICK REVIEW 341
SUMMARY OF THE STEPS IN PERFORMING A TWO-WAY ANOVA 343
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 344
CHAPTER SUMMARY 344
KEY TERMS 345
REVIEW QUESTIONS 345
APPLICATION QUESTIONS 346
INTEGRATION QUESTIONS 348
SUMMARY OF FORMULAS 349
15 Chi Square and Other Nonparametric Procedures 351
GETTING STARTED 351
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO KNOW ABOUT NONPARAMETRIC
PROCEDURES? 351
CHI SQUARE PROCEDURES 352
ONE-WAY CHI SQUARE 352
A QUICK REVIEW 357
THE TWO-WAY CHI SQUARE 357
A QUICK REVIEW 360
STATISTICS IN PUBLISHED RESEARCH: REPORTING CHI SQUARE 362
NONPARAMETRIC PROCEDURES FOR RANKED DATA 363
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER 373
CHAPTER SUMMARY 373
KEY TERMS 374
REVIEW QUESTIONS 374
APPLICATION QUESTIONS 374
INTEGRATION QUESTIONS 377
SUMMARY OF FORMULAS 378

Download Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences By Gary W. Heiman

Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences,

Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, Basic Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences,