# Exp 3 Sieve Analysis

## Experiment No. 3:

### Standard Test Method for Sieve Analysis of fine and coarse aggregates from different sources. (ASTM C136-05)

Scope & Significance:

• This  test method covers the determination of the particle size distribution of fine and coarse aggregates by sieving.
• This test method is used to determine the grading of materials proposed for use as aggregates or being used as aggregates. Sieve Analysis
• Accurate determination of materials finner than 75 micron (Sieve No 200) can not be achieved by this test

Related Theory:

Fineness Modulus

It is the cumulative percentage retained on standard sieve 150μm or sieves No 100 and above divided by 100. It is a single factor or an empirical number which we get from the results of sieve analysis. The value of FM will not change if we add non standard sieves in standard set of sieves. The information obtained from fineness modulus is helpful in the following ways; Sieve Analysis

1-      Fineness modulus tells us directly whether the material is well-graded or gap-graded.
2-      Fineness modulus gives us an overall idea whether the material is fine or coarse. Higher  the value of FM ,coarser will be the aggregate. Sieve Analysis
3-      It also indicates the surface area of the particles. Lower the surface area of the aggregate, the required amount of fresh cement paste to cover the aggregate particles will be less and thus less water is required.
4-      Larger value of FM is preferred for fine aggregates. For a good fine aggregate, the FM should be between 2.3 and 3.1 (ASTM Range for fine aggregates).
5-      A FM of 4 can be interpreted to means that the fourth sieve from bottom i.e. sieve No. 16 is the average size of the aggregate particles in the given sample. Sieve Analysis

Apparatus:

• Standard set of sieves
• Sieve shaker
• Sample of the aggregate

Sieve Analysis

It is the operation of dividing the aggregate into various fractions, each consisting of particles of same size.
OR
It is the operation of determining the particle size distribution of the given specimen.

The standard approach is to designate the sieve sizes by nominal aperture sizes in mm or μm (micron).

1 mm = 1000 μm (micron) Sieve Analysis

Notes:

i-                    Sieve No 4 is the dividing line between coarse and fine aggregate.
ii-                  Well graded coarse aggregates of large size will reduce shrinkage of concrete by 50%.

Functions Of Sieve Analysis

Sieve analysis is performed on coarse and fine aggregates to in order to check their gradation. This gradation gives an indirect measure if the workability and average particle size. Sieve Analysis

SET OF SIEVES

The set of sieves used for the process of sieve analysis can be designated as;

 ASTM Standard Sieves (mm) ASTM Standard Sieves (inch) 75 (3 ”) 37.5 (1½ ”) 19 (3/4 ”) 9.5 (3/8 ”) 4.75 Sieve No 4 (3/16 ”) 2.36 Sieve No 8 (3/32 ”) 1.18 Sieve No 16 600 μm Sieve No 30 300 μm Sieve No 50 150 μm Sieve No 100

Procedure:

Take 2 kg of the oven-dried sample. The sample should be perfectly dry because if there is some moisture content present then the particles will stick together and will not pass through the sieves. Sieve Analysis

Temperature of the oven = 110±5 °C

Place the set of standard and non-standard sieves one above another with the smallest aperture opening at the bottom. The pan is placed at the bottom-most position. This experiment can be performed manually or with the aid of a machine called “sieve shaker”.  The manual method should be performed in a proper sequence which is as follows;

i-                    forward and backward motion

ii-                  left and right motion

iii-                clockwise (CW) and counter-clockwise (CCW) motion

iv-                frequent jolting.

Time elapsed for the sieving process is 3-5 minutes and should not be less than 3 minutes .Weigh the mass retained on each sieve and calculate the percentage passing through each sieve. Then the FM can be calculated by using the relation;

Following points must be kept in mind while calculating the FM;

i-                   Only sum up the values of standard sieves and do not include the values of the non-standard sieves.
ii-                  Only add the sieves of 150μm and above sizes.
iii-                If any standard sieve is missing, we may use the value of next higher sieve.
iv-                Adding extra sieves does not change the result of FM. Sieve Analysis

Grading Requirement (Quality of A Sample ):

Sieve Analysis Grading basically indicates the sizes of the aggregates and in which proportions they are present. There are some limiting values for every sieve provided by ASTM or BS, we use these limiting values to get our final answer by the method explained below. Take the minimum and the maximum values provided by ASTM and plot them on the grading curve. Now take these minimum and maximum value lines as your reference and if the curve of our own data lies inside these two lines then the quality of our sample is OK but if your curve lies outside these two lines of maximum and minimum range then the sample is not according to specifications. Sieve Analysis

ASTM Grading Requirements For Fine  Aggregates

 Sieve Size Cumulative % Passing Minimum Maximum 9.5mm 100 100 4.75mm 95 100 2.36mm 80 100 1.18mm 50 85 600μm 25 60 300μm 10 30 150μm 2 10

Observations  & Results

Sample no. 1:……Laurence pure Sand ……                   Sample weight = 1000g = 1kg

 Sieve # Sieve Sizes Mass Retained % Retained Cumulative % Retained Cumulative % Passing (openings per linear inch) (mm or μm) (gm) (%) (%) (%) 4 4.75 9 0.9 0.9 99.1 8 2.36 44 4.4 5.3 94.7 16 1.18 163 16.3 21.6 78.4 30 600 μm 191 19.1 40.7 59.3 50 300 μm 468 46.8 87.5 12.5 100 150 μm 101 10.1 97.6 2.4 Pan Pan 24 2.4 100 0

Cumulative Percentage Retained up to particle size 150μm =  253.6 Sieve Analysis
Fineness Modulus = 2.536

Sample no. 2:……Chenab Sand ……                         Sample weight = 1000g = 1kg

 Sieve # Sieve Sizes Mass Retained % Retained Cumulative % Retained Cumulative % Passing (openings per linear inch) (mm or μm) (gm) (%) (%) (%) 4 4.75 0 0 0 100 8 2.36 4 0.4 0.4 99.6 16 1.18 7 0.7 1.1 98.9 30 600 μm 9 0.9 2 98 50 300 μm 490 49 51 49 100 150 μm 437 43.7 94.7 5.3 Pan Pan 53 5.3 100 0

Cumulative Percentage Retained up to particle size 150μm =  149.2
Fineness Modulus = 1.492

ASTM Grading Requirements For Coarse Aggregates

 Sieve Size (mm) % Passing 37.5 mm down Aggregate 19 mm down Aggregate 12.5 mm down Aggregate Min Max Min Max Min Max 50 100 100 – – – – 37.5 95 100 – – – – 25 – – 100 100 19 35 70 90 100 100 100 12.5 – – – – 90 100 9.5 10 30 20 55 40 70 4.75 0 5 0 10 0 15 2.36 – – 0 5 0 5

Observations  & Results

Sample no. 3:……Sargodha Crush ……                         Sample weight = 4000g = 4kg

 Sieve # Sieve Sizes Mass Retained % Retained Cumulative % Retained Cumulative % Passing (openings per linear inch) (mm or μm) (gm) (%) (%) (%) 3 75 0 0 0 100 1½ 37.5 0 0 0 100 3/4. 19 97 2.425 2.425 97.575 3/8. 9.5 3552 88.8 91.225 8.775 3/16. 4.75 336 8.4 99.625 0.375 3/32. 2.36 1 0.025 99.65 0.35 Pan Pan 14 0.35 100 0

Cumulative Percentage Retained up to particle size 150μm =  292.925
Fineness Modulus = 2.929

Sample no. 4:……Margala Crush ……                         Sample weight = 4000g = 4kg

 Sieve # Sieve Sizes Mass Retained % Retained Cumulative % Retained Cumulative % Passing (openings per linear inch) (mm or μm) (gm) (%) (%) (%) 3 75 0 0 0 100 1½ 37.5 0 0 0 100 3/4. 19 346 8.65 8.65 91.35 3/8. 9.5 2840 71 79.65 20.35 3/16. 4.75 798 19.95 99.6 0.4 3/32. 2.36 4 0.1 99.7 0.3 Pan Pan 12 0.3 100 0

Cumulative Percentage Retained up to particle size 150μm =  287.6
Fineness Modulus = 2.876

The experiment has been performed successfully and the fineness modulus of different samples have been calculated which are shown in tabular form below. Sieve Analysis

 Name of Sample Laurence pure Sand Chenab Sand Sargodha Crush Margala Crush Fineness Modulus 2.563 1.492 2.929 2.876

Sieve Analysis.As we know that the Fineness modulus is a measurement of the coarseness or fineness of a given aggregate, higher the FM the coarser the aggregate.       The above table is showing us that the Laurence pure sand is coarser then Chenab sand and similarly Sargodha crush is coarser then margala crush. As we know that Larger value of FM is preferred for fine aggregates & For a good fine aggregate, the FM should be between 2.3 and 3.1 So, we can conclude that the Laurence pure sand is a good fine aggregate as the fineness modulus of Laurence pure sand is in between the given range of a good fine aggregate. The most coarser of all the samples is Sargodha crush as its fineness modulus is greater of all. As surface area is inversely proportional to fineness modulus so Chenab sand will be having the greater surface area of all the samples as its fineness modulus is least that is 1.492. Sieve Analysis

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## 21 Replies to “Exp 3 Sieve Analysis”

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• for PRC:
International author ” Design of Reinforced Concrete” 9th edition
by Jack C.McCORMAC & RUSSELL H.BROWN